Beetle Bailey, which started as a college-themed strip in 1950, debuted inauspiciously in 12 newspapers. After six months, it had signed on only 25 clients, and King Features Syndicate considered dropping it. The Korean War was heating up at that time, so Mort Walker decided to have Beetle enlist in the Army. He quickly picked up 100 newspapers. Mort redesigned the cast and a Sunday page was added in 1952. After the Korean War was over, Army brass wanted to tighten up discipline and felt that Beetle Bailey encouraged disrespect for officers. The strip was banned in the Tokyo Stars and Stripes, and the sympathetic publicity rocketed Beetle’s circulation another 100 papers. When Mort won the National Cartoonist Society’s award as the best cartoonist of the year for 1953, Beetle Bailey had become a certified success, with licensed products and a growing list of clients. From 1954 to 1968, the circulation of Beetle Bailey grew from 200 newspapers to 1,100, and many new characters were added to the cast. Today, after more than six decades, Mort Walker’s creation is still one of the most popular comic strips in the world.
Awards and Distinctions:
1953: “Cartoonist of the Year,” National Cartoonists Society ("The Reuben")
1955: Banshee Award, Silver Lady, “Outstanding Cartoonist”
1966: “Best Humor Strip,” National Cartoonists Society
1969: “Best Humor Strip,” National Cartoonists Society
1972: Il Secolo XIX Award, Italy
1975: Adamson Award, “Best International Cartoonist,” Sweden
1977: Power of Printing Award
Elzie Segar Award, “Lifetime Achievement”
1978: “Fourth Estate Award,” American Legion
1979: The Jester, Newspaper Features Council
Inkpot Award, San Diego Comic Convention
1980: Faculty Alumni Award, University of Missouri. Scholar in residence
1981: Doctor of Letters, William Penn College
1987: “Man of the Year,” Kappa Sigma Fraternity
1988: Adamson Award Platinum, Sweden
1990: U.S. Army Certificate of Appreciation for Patriotic Civilian Service
1999: Golden T-Square, National Cartoonists Society – 50 years of service, Only second ever to receive award.
1999: Order of Chevalier, French Minister of Culture and Communication
1999: Elzie Segar Award
2000: The Decoration For Distinguished Civilian Service
2010: The Sparky Award, The Cartoon Art Museum
Beetle Bailey was modeled after Mort Walker’s old high school and Army buddy, Dave Hornaday, who was tall, skinny and always getting into trouble in an innocent way. Beetle subscribes to the philosophy, “Whenever the urge to work comes over me, I lie down until it goes away.” He is a typical G.I. Joe (which stands for “Government Issued”), an anonymous drone at the bottom of the pecking order who tries to survive in a world governed by nonsensical rules. Beetle is the smartest guy at Camp Swampy because he understands the absurdity of Army bureaucracy and defiantly resists authority. He often gets beaten to a pulp after disobeying Sarge, but he never gives up. Beetle is the little guy who wins in the end because he steadfastly refuses to be defeated.
Sgt. Orville Snorkel
Sgt. Orville P. Snorkel is based on a sergeant Mort Walker had during World War II. Sgt. Octavious Savou yelled at his “boys” constantly in a booming voice, but one day he left a mimeographed Christmas poem pinned to their pillows. Mort gave Sarge this same mix of roughness and tenderness. He stomps on Beetle and then buys him a beer. The barracks is his home and he feels out of place in the real world. He is a man’s man and he is afraid of women. His nemesis is the fussy Lt. Fuzz, and his best friend is Otto, his dog. He overeats, over-reacts and overdoes just about everything. Sarge embodies all of the excesses that human beings are blessed with.
Bunny, Killer, Otto, Fuzz:
Among the major characters who made their initial appearances in Beetle Bailey during the 1950s were: Bunny, who replaced Buzz, Beetle’s original college girlfriend. Killer, Beetle’s best buddy, who was patterned after an Army roommate of Mort’s who thought he was God’s gift to women. Otto, Sarge’s canine sidekick, first appeared in 1956 but didn’t get a regulation Army uniform until 1969. Lt. Sonny Fuzz, the camp apple-polisher and go-getter, who closely resembles a 21-year-old newly-minted lieutenant from Kansas named Mort Walker. All of these characters are still regulars in the strip.
Miss Buxley, Gen. Halftrack’s sexy secretary, is still causing problems almost forty years after she was first hired as an office temp. Inspired by Marilyn Monroe, Miss Buxley has been attacked by feminists, canceled by editors and adored by millions of readers. She has survived as an integral member of the Beetle Bailey cast.
Lt. Flap & Plato
In the 1960s and '70s, three new characters helped to keep Beetle Bailey in step with the times. Lt. Flap, the first black character in the strip, was initially controversial but Mort managed to avoid racial stereotyping by making him an officer who is hip, proud and very much in control. Plato, Camp Swampy’s resident intellectual, was based on Mort’s close friend and partner, Dik Browne, and became famous for his thought-provoking graffiti.
Zero is a naive farm boy with the innocent heart of a child. Although these characters look very different today, they still perform the same job – interacting with each other to produce humorous situations.
Gen. Amos T. Halftrack & Cookie
Other major cast members who made their debut in the 1950s include: Gen. Amos T. Halftrack, the bumbling head of Camp Swampy, who, as time marches on, has become the most autobiographical character in the strip. Cookie, a summation of all the Army chefs Mort was victimized by during his Army career.
Private Blips, Sgt. Lugg, Corp. Yo, Chip Gizmo
Mort has continued to create new characters and redefine established players. Private Blips, Miss Buxley’s hard-working but less attractive counterpart, has been around since the 1960s but has taken on a more militant role in Gen. Halftrack’s office in recent years. Sergeant Louise Lugg, a female version of Sarge, was transferred to Camp Swampy in 1986 along with her feline friend, Bella. Corporal Yo, who was criticized by one Asian-American as being “too smart” made his entrance in 1990. The latest addition to the cast is Chip Gizmo, a nerdy technology specialist. Mort often compares producing a daily comic strip to directing a miniature stage play. In addition to writing, directing and design, the job of casting is crucial to the continued success of Beetle Bailey.
Cosmo, Dr. Bonkus, Capt. Scabbard, Martha:
Among the many minor characters who joined the Beetle Bailey cast in the 1950s and '60s were: Cosmo, the camp wheeler-dealer, who was inspired by William Holden’s performance in the movie “Stalag 17.” Dr. Bonkus, the diminutive camp shrink, who is a bundle of nervous tension and psychological disorders. Capt. Scabbard is based on a hard-nosed career officer Mort once served under who carried a canteen filled with gin on hikes. Martha, the power behind Gen. Halftrack’s throne, calls the shots on the home front. These characters are still regulars in the strip.
Chaplain Staneglass, Rocky, Pop, Julius:
In the 1950s and '60s, Mort tried to introduce a new character every year to stimulate interest in the strip and develop fresh material for gags. Some of the characters who first appeared during this period include: Chaplain Staneglass, the well-meaning, but ineffectual moral conscience of Camp Swampy. Rocky, a rebel without a cause, who later became the muckraking editor of the camp newspaper. Pop, an older G.I. who, after being yelled at by Sarge all day, would return home at night to be nagged by his wife. Julius, Gen. Halftrack’s fussy driver, who was derisively called “mother” by the boys in the barracks. These characters served their purpose for a short time and now only make rare appearances in the strip.